Friday, 3 February 2017

Mannequin challenge: preparing cancer nurses through simulating emergency situations

Guest post by Gillian Walton, Director of Learning and Teaching, Northumbria University 

Tomorrow (4 February) is World Cancer Day, a day where millions of people across the world unite to raise awareness of cancer. One in two people will be diagnosed with cancer at some point in their lives (cancer research UK), an alarming statistic. Currently, 8.2 million people die from cancer worldwide every year, out of which, 4 million people aged 30 to 69 years die prematurely.

Of the millions of people diagnosed, a high percentage will receive systemic chemotherapy (anti-cancer drugs that are injected into a vein or given by mouth) as a primary, secondary or palliative form of treatment.

Students role play chemotherapy induced emergency situations
As a previous oncology nurse I’m acutely aware that managing chemotherapy and the potential life threatening side effects can be demanding and highly stressful. Management of acute side effects is usually a nursing responsibility which adds extra pressure not only on resources but the knowledge required of the many drugs available to treat over 200 different cancers. Chemotherapy drugs are highly toxic and can have life threatening side effects, so managing severe reactions is essential. This can therefore be a scary environment for both the nurse and the patient!

Mannequins mimic the symptoms of a deteriorating patient 
At Northumbria University I run a chemotherapy module and have designed a simulation based interactive educational (SBE) activity to encourage students to engage in scenarios to simulate chemotherapy induced emergency situations. Simulated practice has been described as the "activities that mimic the reality of a clinical environment and are designed to demonstrate procedure, decision making and critical thinking through techniques such as role playing and the use of devices such as interactive manikins” (Jefferies 2005)1. Ongoing qualitative research by my colleague Alan Platt who collaborates with me on this project has shown that the use of simulation informs and improves student performance. His knowledge and findings have facilitated translating the theory into practice. We use high fidelity mannequins, which can mimic the symptoms of a deteriorating patient so the student can role play chemotherapy induced emergency situations in a safe simulated clinical environment. Students are briefed prior to the encounter about the clinical scenario and their role as a nurse caring for a patient in a chemotherapy day unit. They are asked to be themselves and to act as they would if they were at work in the clinical area. A clinical expert assists the learning experience by providing prompts for the nurses to manage the emergency situation. Covert cameras record the scenario in real time and allow the students to review and reflect “on action” and evaluate their performance following the scenario. I then debrief the group which is widely recognised as a critical element of simulation-based education. Debriefing following the scenario allows the students to engage in reflective learning(Fanning and Gaba 2007)2,3 as well as consider decision making, risk management, patient safety and communication amongst the team. Although the students initially find it a bit daunting being filmed and working with dummies that can actually speak, breath and blink their eyes, they also have said that it’s a fun and great way to learn.

All students complete a questionnaire after the SBE relating to the learning experience. To date, 100% of the students reported that the use of simulation enhanced their learning and that the learning was stimulating and exciting. The majority of the students said that they would recommend the learning experience to a colleague. Comments suggest that they learnt how to react if they experienced the situation again in practice which increased their overall confidence; the main objective of the exercise.

The use of simulation means students feel much better prepared to manage chemotherapy emergencies. Overall they valued the learning experience and the opportunity to reflect on their practice in a safe environment. This in turn translates to greater safety for students and patients.

Evaluation and research findings provide support that simulation is an effective learning technique which prepares students to manage the situation should it arise in clinical practice.

References:
  1. Jeffries, P. (2005) A framework for designing, implementing and evaluation simulation used as teaching strategies in nursing. Nurse Education Perspective; 26: 2, pp96-103
  2. Fanning RM, Gaba DM. (2007) The role of debriefing in simulation-based learning. Simul healthc;2:115Y125.
  3. Gaba DM. (2004) The future vision of simulation in health care. Qual Saf Health Care;13(suppl 1):i2Yi10.

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